Odissi, is one of the eight classical dance form of India. It originates from the state of Odisha,in eastern state of India. It is the oldest surviving dance form of India on the basis of archaeological evidences.The classic treatise of Indian dance, Natya Shastra, refers to it as Odra-Magadhi. 1st century BCE in the hills of Udayagiri near Bhubaneswar testify to its antiquity. It was suppressed under the British Raja, but has been reconstructed since India gained independence. It is particularly distinguished from other clasical Indian dance forms by the importance it places upon the Tribhangi, the independent movement of head, chest and pelvisand upon the basic square stance known as Chauka or Chouka that symbolizes Lord Jagannath. This dance is characterised by various Bhangas (Stance), which involves stamping of the foot and striking various postures as seen in Indian sculptures. The common Bhangas are Bhanga, Abanga, Atibhanga and Tribhanga.
The first clear picture of Odissi dance is found in the Manchapuri cave in Udayagiri which was carved during the time of emperor Kharavela. Flanked by two queens, emperor Kharavela was watching a dance recital where a damsel was performing a dance in front of the court along with the company of female instrumentalists. Thus, Odissi can be traced back to its origin as secular dance. Later it got attached with the temple culture of Odisha. Starting with the rituals of Jagannath temple in puri it was regularly performed in Shaivite, Vaishnavite and Sakta temples in Odisha. An inscription is found where it was engraved that a Devadasi Karpursri’s attachment toBuddhist monastery, where she was performing along with her mother and grandmother. It proves that Odissi first originated as a court dance. Later, it was performed in all religious places of Jainism as well as Buddhist monasteries. Odissi was initially performed in the temples as a religious offering by the Maharis who dedicated their lives in the services of God. It has the closest resemblance with sculptures of the Indian temples.
The history of Odissi dance has been traced to an early sculptures found in the Ranigumpha caves at Udayagiri (Odisha), dating to the 2nd century BCE. Odissi appears to be the oldest classical dance rooted in rituals and tradition. In fact, the Natya shastra refers to Odra-Magadhi as one of the Vrittis and Odra refers to Odisha.